A Second Lake Apopka Fish Kill


Dublin Core


A Second Lake Apopka Fish Kill

Alternative Title

Lake Apopka Fish Kill


Lake Apopka (Fla.)
Water quality management--Florida


A newspaper article published in The Winter Garden Times discussing a fish kill in Lake Apopka in July of 1981. This fish kill, totaling an estimated four million fish, occurred two weeks after another larger kill in Lake Apopka on June 20, 1981. The article states that the kills are due to a combination of factors affecting the lake, including low water levels, high temperatures, and stormy weather, which led to the lake's high algae content deoxygenating the lake.

Lake Apopka is one of Florida’s largest lakes and was once considered to be one of the world’s best lakes for bass fishing. The lake’s sport fish population began to decline in the 1960s, with major die-offs occurring almost yearly. The lake’s problems are generally considered to be the result of over-nutrification from various sources. Twenty thousand acres of wetlands bordering the lake’s north shore were drained in the 1940s and used for highly fertile “muck farms.” These farms were routinely flooded to protect the fragile soil, and the fertilizer and pesticide-laden water was then discharged back into the lake prior to each growing season. Other sources of pollution include discharge from citrus processing operations, as well as treated wastewater from sewage plants. The nutrient-rich discharge promoted algae growth in the lake, turning the water to a green color, and blocked sunlight from reaching aquatic vegetation, which provided food and habit to the lake’s fish population. The lake’s bottom soil became increasingly “mucky,” also disrupting aquatic vegetation from taking root.

Restoration work on the lake began in the 1960s with attempts by various agencies to remove “trash fish,” such as gizzard shad, from the lake via seining, which would hopefully allow the lake’s sportfish to thrive. The Lake Apopka Restoration Council, an initiative formed under Governor Claude Kirk (1926-2011) in 1967, launched several studies to find methods to improve the lake, though no serious action was taken. Various methods were debated to restore the lake through the 1970s and 1980s, including “drawdown,” which entailed completely draining the lake to allow the mucky bottom to consolidate. Restoration attempts were stalled for lack of funding and research.

The Lake Apopka Restoration Council was reformed in 1985 under Governor Bob Graham (b. 1936), and, in 1987, the Surface Water and Improvement Management Act was passed. Together, these actions allowed comprehensive restoration plans to take shape, such as the Marsh Flow-way, a project by the St John’s Water Management District that uses natural methods to remove nutrients from the lake. The Friends of Lake Apopka, a citizen environmental advocacy group, began to push for further restoration efforts in the 1990s. The lake’s north shore muck farms were eventually purchased by the State of Florida, helping to reduce the amount of nutrient entering the lake.


Photocopy of original newspaper article: "A Second Lake Apopka fish kill." The Winter Garden Times, Vol. 50, No. 29, July 16, 1981: binder 1981, Friends of Lake Apopka Archives, Ginn Museum, Oakland Nature Preserve, Oakland, Florida.

Date Created

ca. 1981-07-16

Date Copyrighted


Date Issued


Is Format Of

Digital reproduction of photocopied newspaper article: "A Second Lake Apopka fish kill." The Winter Garden Times, Vol. 50, No. 29, July 16, 1981.

Is Part Of

Binder 1981, Friends of Lake Apopka Archives, Ginn Museum, Oakland Nature Preserve, Oakland, Florida.
Friends of Lake Apopka Collection, RICHES of Central Florida.




281 KB


1 newspaper article






Lake Apopka, Florida

Accrual Method



History Teacher


Originally published by The Winter Garden Times.

Rights Holder

Copyright to this resource is held by The West Orange Times &amp
Observer and is provided here by RICHES of Central Florida for educational purposes only.

Contributing Project


King, Joshua

Digital Collection

Source Repository

External Reference

"History of Lake Apopka." St John's River Water Management District. January 28, 2013. Accessed June 5, 2016. http://www.sjrwmd.com/lakeapopka/history.html.


“A Second Lake Apopka Fish Kill,” RICHES, accessed July 23, 2024, https://richesmi.cah.ucf.edu/omeka/items/show/7969.